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SUN LIFE OF CANADA MARTIN ELFANT 201 Century Building Houston, Texas CA 4-0686 Without obligation, I would like more details of the new Sun Lit* Security Fund plan. NAME ADDRESS AGE Over $133 Million Insurance In Force GI 4;tekrAsbieA INSURANCE COMPANY P. 0. Box 8098 Houston, Texas HAROLD E. RILEY Vice-President and Director of Agencies RELIABLE REAL ESTATE SERVICE Arthur Hajocate METROPOLITAN REALTY CO. 4340 Telephone Road HOUSTON, TEXAS Moctezuma’s Last Laugh AUSTIN The Indian is taking Texas back under cover of night. The bronze-skinned descendant of the pre-Colombian tribes is procreating his image at least twice as fast as all the hybrid European strains put together. In the Latin-American segment of the population, which now approximates one-fifth of the total, and will soon count two million people, the Indian is predominant. Not the “pure” Indianif there can be such a thing as a pure Indian after these four centuries and more that the white man has enjoyed a superior positionbut anyhow the unmistakable marks, the eyes, the hair, the color of the Indian. If you do not believe this, visit a swimming pool on the southwest side of San Antonio in the summer time and note the shades of brown, running from light tan to rich mahogany. Or walk down Congress Avenue in Austin on a Saturday afternoon. I can remember when there was a single Mexican in Austin high school. He made better grades than. any of the rest of us. It was whispered that he was really not a plain Mexican, but a High Class Mexican, or a “Spanish.” If no such class existed, we would have had to invent it to explain to ourselves why he could outsmart us. This boy, I recall, was not very dark, so we did not resent him as much as we -did a Syrian who also outsmarted us, and who definitely was not white. These ‘and other experiences with “furrin” breeds convinced me in early youth that there was no correlation between skin color and brainpower, and later,. and prolonged intimacy with people of different “races” and cultures has convinced me that the whole concept of race is silly and that heredity has little or nothing to do with culture. When I call atten “BOW” WILLIAMS Automobile and General Insurance Budget Payment Plan Strong Stock Companies GReenwood 2-0545 624 LAMAR, AUSTIN Let’s Abolish the Poll Tax! THE TEXAS OBSERVER Page 6 Nov. 6, 1959 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR AN INTERNATIONAL DAILY NEWSPAPER Good Reading for the Whole Family News Facts Family Features The Christian Science Monitor One Norway St., Boston 15, Mass. Send your newspaper for the time checked. Enclosed find my check or money order. 1 year $20 6 months $10 3 months $5 Name Address City Zone State PB-I6 tion to the dominance of the Indian’s physical characteristics in a majority of the Latin-Americans in Texas, it is partly to share with you an uproarious biological joke and partly to launch from this base an inquiry into cultural backgrounds. AS LATE as the Mexican Revolution of ‘1910-20, the Texans of Spanish-Indian origin were in a sort of cultural slough. The three components of their culture were Indian, Spanish Charles Ramsdell haps, be identified as Mexican ranchero, or mestizo. The Indian element was strong from the outset. Although the native tribes died out rapidly from the white man’s diseases, there was a strong injection of Indian blood from Me x i c o. Haughty Spaniards who inspected Texas in the Eighteenth C en t u r y complained about the “people of broken color” who inhabited the province, classifying them as “coyotes.” It may be that these were in some degree descended from the Indians of Tlaxcala, the tiny state east of Mexico City that furnished Cortez with allies, enabling him to destroy the power of the Aztecs. As a reward for their help, the Tlaxcalans were given equal JOINER SUED: ALL BROKE UP RALLS Ernest Joiner, editor of the Rails Banner, is one of nine defendants in a $50,000 libel suit filed by Charles Mooney, a television repair service operator. Mooney was charged with theft but found . innocent in county court. He complains of writings in the Rails Banner and the Lorenzo Tribune, whose editor,. Joe W. Brown, is also a defendant. Joiner, “under heavy Jack Daniels sedation at his ..palacious northside villa,” announced the lawsuit in his Banner with a subhead, “It’s Just One Damned Thing After Another.” He declined to comment by saying that considering that it would not have cost a cent to sue for $5 million, the $50,000 suit “is degrading, embarrassing, and insulting.” status with the Spaniards. They were persuaded to settle along the northern frontier, where they served as a buffer between the conquistadores and the untamed tribes. About 1586’ several hundred were chosen from among the grandchildren of the Tlaxcalan king Xicotencatl, who had first fought Cortez and then joined him, and who, with the co-operation of some 200 concubines, had produced at least 500 heirsthese royal grandchildren were transported to Saltillo, where they were settled in a town all their own \(the principal street divided the Indian from the Spanish to establish themselves in each new place that was founded. One of these places was Parras; from there the Indians colonized El Alamo de Parras; a company of militia recruited there was sent to San Antonio, Texas, and remained many years, giving its name, El Alamo, to the old mission which served them as barracks. Descendants of these soldiers are still in San Antonio. IUST WHAT these Indians con tributed, besides their. genes, it is not easy to tell. We do know that certain customs, like the dance known as matachines, have been kept up all this time. In 1822 the parents of a schoolboy at Gocomplaint against the teacher, who, they averred, had slapped junior’s hand, injuring it; but an ,official reported that the ‘boy had been seen afterward, “dancing in the matachines and whirling a gourd with great abandon.” The pastores, too, the Christmas play that seems like a bit of medieval Spain, is essentially Indian, the way it is treated. In some versions an American Indian in fullfeathered Sioux warbonnet appears to the shepherds on their journey to Bethlehem; in one performance he sang a song extolling Oklahoma City. As for the Spaniard of Eu’rope, represented by certain officials and by the Canary Islanders, his influence virtually disappeared when Texas became Mexican and finally vanished when the Islanders married into the French, German, American, and even Irish families and so became absorbed in the general melange. The prevailing culture, from the beginning, was the peculiarly Mexican one of the ranchero or vaquero, whose life has always been pretty much the same in northern Mexico and in Texas. It was strenuous, concerned first of all with the horse, then with cattle, mules, oxen. But it was an outdoor life, and there was time for song and dance. The irony is that the Anglo-American, who learned the techniques of this life and created his national hero, ‘the cowboy, by imitating it, actually destroyed or debased its more en gaging features. The fandango, which began as a gracious ceremonial dance in Spanish times and became a less sedate but still respectable dancehall entertainment later on, was regarded as a menace to morals and to public health in the 1850’s. Texas had entered the union and the Anglo-American ruffian was turning the dancehall into a shooting gallery. The fandangos got so rough, they were abolished by law in the 1870’s. The Mexican vaquero, meanwhile, had been forced out of the ‘country in the border warfare between rustlers and bandits of both nations, which was unbelievably ferocious; or if he remained here he hard to take some kind of subservient job. Beginning in the 1850’s, the Mexican inhabitants of Texas were t r e a t e d as undesira HOUSTON “Intemperate language” is the offense for which the Harris County Medical Society proposes to “try” a member doctor in secret and possibly expel ‘him if ‘he is found guilty. A doctor who is not a member of the society is denied the use of certain hospitals. Dr. Abel J. Leader, a urologist and surgeon, criticized the society in 1958 for obtaining signatures to call a referendum on whether to build a new city-county charity hospital at Texas Medical Center, which the society opposed. In the subsequent election the voters approved the hospital, 41,949 to 38,738. Leader released the society’s charges against him. Dated Oct. 7 and notarized, the charges read: “The Board of Censors of the Harris County Medical Society hereby prefers formal charges against Abel J. Leader, M. D. … ethical conduct by use of intemperate language in-a talk made at a luncheon meting held on Tuesday, July 8, 1959, … the text of which was printed in the Hous1 ton Post, Wednesday, July 9, 1959. “This intemperate language con bles. They were forcibly expelled from many counties, including Travis County. From then on, and in some areas until our day, they have been a people on sufferance, who were allowed to keep their own customs to themselves. In these circumstances, it is little