isolated, institutionalized, discriminated against, or even sterilized. What was developed as a tool to aid people quickly became, in the hands of American “experts,” a weapon to harm them. Thus, in the 1920s over 7,500 people in Virginia were sterilized because they had low scores on the Stanford-Binet I.Q. test. Many of those sterilized were poor and uneducated. They could hardly read, much less take tests. . . . results were used to justify racism . . . and im migration quotas Similarly, during World War I thousands of inductees were tested in cramped rooms, under deplorable testing conditions. Many were educated. A large number were recent immigrants who knew little English. Some of those tested had never held a pencil. Not surprisingly, immigrants and southern blacks did poorly on these tests. The results were used to justify racism and later, in the 1920s, immigration quotas. Millions would die in the 1930s and 1940s because of American immigration quotas that were wholeheartedly supported by psychologists who argued before Congressional committees that the World War I testing proved the inherent inferiority of Eastern and Southern Europeans. One aspect of the World War I testing is particularly relevant today. The World War I tests showed that the more schooling one had, the better one did on the I.Q. tests. Yet, if you ask any “expert” today, they will tell you that such tests are not based on education or culture, but what they call “native intelligence.” How then, did the World War I testers explain the direct relationship of high scores and education? Robert M. Yerkes, the man in charge of the program, “did not conclude that more schooling leads to increasing scores per se; instead, he argued that men with more innate intelligence spend more time in school,” When evaluating the difference between the scores of blacks and whites, Yerkes argued that the “failure of blacks to attend school . . . must reflect a disinclination based on low innate intelligence.” Yerkes offered “not a word about segregation \(then officially tions in black schools, or economic necessities for working among the impoverished.” Gould’s book is particularly instructive for those concerned about education in Texas. Gould shows, over and over again, how culture, economic status, language, and education affect test scores. The more we spend on education the better students are likely to do on tests and presumably the more they will know. Texas ranks about 45th in per capita expenditure for education in the nation. Not surprisingly, that is also where we rank for testing of high school graduates. Throw in such factors as poor nutrition and language barriers for many Texans, and we begin to understand why some people are determined to be “smart” and others “stupid.” Gould does not deny that inheritance is a factor in intelligence or abilities. But, he does show that it is only one of many factors. Furthermore, he demonstrates that genetically linked abilities are found in nearly the same proportion in all races. Difference among groups within our society is not based on race, but rather on the inequities within the society itself. Paul Finkelman teaches legal history at the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of An Imperfect Union \(Chapel Hill: University of North Caro”The Miracle of the KILLER BEES” by Robert Heard. Honey Hill Publishing Co., 1022 Bonham Terrace, Austin, Texas 78704, $7.95 plus $1.03 tax and shipping. ANDERSON & COMPANY COFFEE TEA SPICES TWO .113FFE1tSON SWAM AUSTIN TEXAS mai 512 453 -1533 Send me your list. Name Street City Zip Parisian Charm. Omelette & Champagne Breakfast. Beautiful Crepes. Afternoon Cocktails. Gallant Waiters. Delicious Quiche. Evening Romance. Continental Steaks. Mysterious Women. Famous Pastries. Cognac & Midnight Rendezvous. In short, it’s about everything a great European style restaurant is all about. h ks n OIFI. Cafe 3. 310 East 6th St. Austin, Texas the legendary RAW DEAL Steaks, Chops, Chicken open lunch and evenings 6th & Sabine, Austin No Reservations EAT DOWNTOWN! BREAKFAST AND LUNCH OPEN 7:30 AM ’til 4 PM Across from the Alamo National Bank 135 East Commerce, San Antonio 225-0231 CC Life Insurance and Annuities Martin Elfant, CLU 4223 Richmond, Suite 213, Houston, TX 77027 20 MAY 21, 1982
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