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would want to destroy, or to impede the work of the committee. We will do our best to see that threats are exposed and the true intentions of those who made the threats are brought to life.” During the recess a lady from the Jane Douglass chapter of the DAR asked Hughes why Texas could not have an investigating committee on education “like California has.” Hughes replied that the textbook committee was a pilot project and that it might branch out into other areas of investigations in the field of education. White Defends Supt. W. T. White, head of the Dallas schools, outlined the procedure for choosing textbooks and said the selection of books should be by professional educators. “The present plan is the best plan that we have had, and I endorse it.” I rff’:1 He suggested that “our teachers are more conservative than the average citizen.” And he assured the audience that in Dallas, as chairman of the textbook committee, he makes certain that every book is certified as having been read, and as being “accurate, teachable, and portraying the American system of society in the proper light.” Dr. Arthur A. Smith, former chairman of the economics department at SMU and now vice president of the First National Bank in Dallas, appeared at the invitation of the committee, with the hope that “no teacher or educator will regard my presence as a meddler, or indicating a lack of confidence in any teacher, educator, or administrator, or that my appearance is politically motivated. I know what it means for politically motivated people to charge that the schools are ‘atheistic or un-American,’ ” he said. Smith fold Dungan that of the five economics books on the approved list, not one in his opinion was un-American. He felt that curriculum-building and the selection of teaching materials were tasks for professional educators. J. Evetts Haley, leader of Texans for America, referred at one point to the Texas Observer as the “Texas Communist Worker” and to J. Frank Dobie as the “doddering darling of th? dogooders.” To applause, he said he “disagreed with Dr. White, who is in charge of these premises only temporarily,” that the selection cf textbooks is a professional matter. “Free eaterprise offers a better method of education than socialized education,” he said. Haley launched another of his attacks against SMU professor Paul Boller, citing his membership in the Southern Conference Education Fund. He also called for an investigation of publishing companies. He called Harris Holmes of the Webster Publishing Company a “liar out of the whole cloth. If he doesn’t like that, he knows the way to the courthouse.” Haley claimed that the Webster Publishing Company, in cooperation with the Institute of Pacific Relations, published in 1940 seven or eight pamphlets for use in the army and in the schools which served to “make soldiers soft on communism.” General Walker, who received a standing ovation, quoted from this Pro-Blue Training Program and said there was a close relationship between the soldier, the student as a potential soldier, and the public. In an apparent reference to his practice of recommending conservative candidates for office, he said “The army regulations do state that it is authorized to discuss candidates for public office. “All morality is based on Christianity,” Walker said. There is a “substantial number of teachers and books subversive to our system,” he argued. There are teachers who “would take 20 points from a student who makes a grade of 90 and add it to a student’s who makes only 50 in order to equalize the class. “Shyster lawyers, psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers are making it difficult to maintain discipline in the field. The cult of American sophisticates is liquidating millions through a military conspiracy with communism. Our army will not survive an anti-Christian, anti-moral educational system,” he said. Mrs. V. W. Wooley, representing the Texas Society of the DAR and Texans for America, protested the use of the book Family Living, which she suggested should be called Hate Your Parents or Are Your Parents Really Necessary? “Some of my dearest friends are teachers,” she said. “I would prefer to have a teacher who uses ‘ain’t’ than one whose love of country is in question.” She ridiculed the section in the book on “How should a couple know how far is too far in their lovemaking.” “The section on ‘Going Steady’ made me self-conscious to read it. I am too old for that.” She complained that the book describes socially mature people as those who can adjust successfully to a group. “What if the group is a criminal gang or a cell of subversive communists?” Businessmen appearing in opposition to the book Economic Problems of Today were William Marvin Watson Jr., Lone Star Steel Co., and Richard S. Harvey and Samuel H. Lane of the Tyler Pipe and Foundry Co. Other books criticized were Personal Adjustment, a junior high home economics textbook; The Story of American Freedom, a fifth grade social studies _book; American Government, the U.S. and Literature; and We the People. Major objections were that capitalism was not portrayed in a sufficiently favorable light, that the shortcomings of our system were overemphasized, that some of the books had an “internationalist or one world” slant, that social security and the income tax were favored, and that authors recommended such “communist writers” as Sandburg, Dos Passos, Hemingway, Steinbeck, MacLeish, and Dorothy Parker. A 12-year-old junior high student, Terry Eastland, complained of one of his books, This Is America’s Story. ‘ It says here our government is a democracy. I disagree with this, because ours is a constitutional republic. If this is a democracy, in World War II we would have had to have had an election before we went to war with the Japanese.” The book doesn’t “mention Christianity and our belief in God. “We’ll never get peace until the second coming of Christ. They talk about world peace in there and I’m not in favor of that,” he said. A Trend To Right In House AUSTIN A roughly even split in the 40 Democratic second primaries for the House last week, combined with the liberal loss of ground on May 5, means a somewhat more conservative lower chamber in 1963. Eleven incumbents were defeated and seven were re-elected in Saturday’s voting. Of the eleven who were ousted, five are conservatives, two moderates, and four liberals. The seven incumbents who survived include three liberals, three conservatives, and a moderate. AUSTIN Rep. Byron Tunnell of Tyler, one of the most conservative members of the House, apparently had the Speaker’s race all sewed up this week, even though the formal voting of the House members will not take place until the session opens in January. Tunnel’ released to capitol newsmen a list of 95 Democratic nominees whom he said have pledged to vote for him. His opponent, moderate liberal Alonzo Jamison, has claimed 61, but there are only 150 in the House and one of the two must be inflating his claims a bit. Jamison, after Tunnell announced the names, said he was not going to throw in the towel, but “I would not care to campaign from here on out.” Liberals Mauro Rosas of El Paso, Obie Jones of Austin, J. C. Wheatley of Haskell, and Ted Springer of Amarillo lost their reelection bids to conservative challengers. The victors, respectively, were Dudley Mann of El Paso, Pat Cain of Austin, Roy Arledge of Stamford, and J. M. Simpson of Amarillo. The unsuccessful conservative incumbents were Ben Glusing of Kingsville, who was a candidate for House speaker; Sam Parsons of Henderson, Charles Sandahl of Austin, Tom Andrews of Aransas Pass, and Jack Connell of Wichita Falls. Middle-roaders Virginia Duff of Ferris and George Preston of Paris were also unseated. Liberals prevailed 2-1 in three run-offs for new places from Harris County. Chet Brooks and Tom Bass defeated conservatives Ira Kohler and Walter Keith, but conservative Herbert Shutt defeated J. R. Harrison, a liberal from Pasadena. The full Harris County slate, barring GOP upsets, will include eight conservatives and four liberals. The seven incumbents who won their run-offs were liberals Paul Haring of Goliad, C. W. Pearcy of Temple, and H. 0. Niemeyer of Knippa, conservatives Ben Jarvis of Tyler, Bill Walker of Cleveland, and Ned Blaine of El Paso, and middle-roader, anti-taxer Homer Koliba of Columbus, who squeaked by with an 88-vote margin. In several important races not involving incumbents, Jack Ritter defeated Ed Wendler for Austin’s fourth place, Jim Klager defeated Tony Bonilla in Corpus Christi, Billy Coughlin of McAllen defeated Adolfo de la Garza, J. D. Weldon defeated Thomas R. Thomas in Port Arthur, Hugh Parmer defeated Jack Zachary and Dave Finney defeated Vernon Johnson in Fort Worth, and Bill Clayton of Springlake defeated B. M. Nelson of Dimmitt. There will be general election fights for 86 of the 150 places. Two House incumbents are Republicans. AUSTIN The trend in the state Senate continued leftward on the basis of Democratic run-offs Saturday. Rep. Roy Harring ton of Port Arthur, liberal and labor advocate, defeated Rep. W. T. Oliver of Port Neches, a conservative, and Walter Richter of Gonzales triumphed over conservative Rep. Ray Bartram of New Braunfels in the two most significant of five run-offs. Harrington and Richter succeed two Senate conservatives, Jep Fuller of Port Arthur and R. A. Weinert of Seguin. In the other race where ideology was well-defined, conservative Sen. Frank Owen of El Paso defeated former Rep. Andy Anderson of Midland, who had liberal support. Incumbent liberal Babe Schwartz ousted Maco Stewart face unusually determined GOP opposition in the November gen eral election. At this formulative stage, the seriousness of the Re publican challenge apparently depends on what most liberal Democrats, in other words Yarborough supporters, plan to do. The Observer learned this week that Yarborough people in several areas plan to work actively for Republican Jack Cox, as in the “two-party” campaign between Sen. John Tower and William Blakley last year. How extensive the move is and what direct damage it will do to Connally remains to be seen. But as of now the Democratic nominee is a clear favorite. In last Saturday’s gubernatorial voting, Yarborough picked up most of the East Texas counties which went for Gov. Price Daniel in the first primary, including Daniel’s home county, Liberty. He and Connally mostly split the West Texas counties which Marshall Formby carried in May. Connally took five of Atty. Gen. Will Wilson’s seven first primary counties and three of the four that went for General Edwin Walker. Precedents Shattered It was in some ways a precedent-shattering set of returns. Sen. Ralph Yarborough, whose political organization largely remained intact for his younger namesake, had established something of a pattern in recent elections. He could trail badly in Bexar \(though not a badly as the Dallas, and Tarrant, and still divvy up the difference from East Texas, Houston and the coast, and traditionally Democratic Central and North Texas. in a liberal run-off in Galveston. Sen. David Ratliff of Stamford defeated Rep. Truett Latimer of Abilene in a battle of conservatives. There will be Democratic-Republican showdowns for 14 of the 31 Senate seats, but only in Houston and the lower Valleyagainst liberals Criss Cole and Jim Bates, respectivelyare GOP candidates given respectable chances. The traditionally conservative upper house will have its strongest liberal bloc in history, with a clear gain of five seats over 1960. But the liberal-moderate-conservative division is practically an even one. With conservative Preston Smith’s surprise win over Speaker Jim Turman the edge on most issues, though at best only shaky, will again rest with conservatives. A Turman victory in this delicate balance would have meant otherwise. Don Yarborough faltered in the Central Texas areas. As early as 8 p.m. on election night, Yarborough aides, watching counties like Bell and McLennan as bellwethers, saw the extremely close and constantly wavering returns as harbingers of a narrow defeat. In Bell, for instance, Connally led by 500; Ralph Yarborough always carried that one by top-heavy majorities. Every county except one in Sam Rayburn’s old Fourth District in North Texas went for Connally. This has always been strong liberal country. Connally’s connections with Rayburn and Lyndon Johnson undoubtedly helped him here. Connally also ran strongly in Cong. Wright Patman’s First District, normally a liberal stronghold, although Yarborough engineered a surprise by carrying went for Daniel in May, and losing arch-conservative Harrison by less than 200 votes. Bright spots for Yarborough which he took from his opponent by a slight margin ; Lubbock County; the far-west county of Ector, which Walker carried in the first primary; and El Paso County. Connally led in Terrell and Wharton counties, both of which Yarborough led in May. Yarborough reversed first primary leads for Connally in 22 counties. It is difficult to gauge the effect of the organized conservative campaign to vote for Yarborough, although strong Yarborough turnouts in all four of Walker’s counties and a few other conservative areas suggest it may have had a moderate but not heavy impact. FIRST TEAM OUT Another Scorcher In Book Probe