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Harken Energy Corporation j A. uasha North American W. Quasha Nugan Hand G.W. Bush President Bush CIA T. Othman Edwards Brothers o fi A. Rupert Union Bank of Switzerland A. Bakhsh CONNECTIONS BETWEEN F.NTTI TES IN CHART INDICATE BUSINESS OR PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, AND DO NOT IMPLY KNOWLEDGE Of ANOTHER ENTITY’S ACTIVITIES. tired and not-so-retired military-intelligence officials,” according to The Crimes of Patriots, a book by former Wall Street Journal reporter Jonathan Kwitny. In 1977, the Australian Narcotics Bureau released a report detailing Nugan Hand’s involvement in a drug smuggling network that “exported some $3 billion [Australian] worth of heroin from Bangkok prior to June 1976,” according to Australia’s Sunday Pictorial. Moreover, according to a 1984 article in Mother Jones, former CIA officers and Irancontra figures Theodore Shackley and Thomas Clines, along with their subordinate Edwin Wilson \(who is currently imprisoned for selling funds for a variety of covert operations, including the well-documented destabilization of the Australian govkrnment in 1975. In April 1980, as Australian government investigators closed in on Nugan Hand, the coadministrators of the bank’s Manila offices, U.S. Gen. LeRoy J. Manor and British subject Wilfred Gregory, turned to their lawyer, William Quasha, for advice, according to The Crimes of Patriots. In addition to his duties with Nugan Hand, Manor was chief of staff for the U.S. Pacific Command and the U.S. government liaison with Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Gregory was Nugan Hand’s original representative in the Philippines and a personal friend of Marcos’ brother-in-law, Rudwig Rocka, whose family deposited $3.5 million in the bank, according to The Crimes of Patriots. Gregory has stated that Manor’s decision to flee the Philippines to avoid imprisonment was inspired by a conversation with William Quasha. According to The Crimes of Patriots, “Gregory says William Quasha ‘arranged for Manor to leave the country. He told me to go too. He said, “You could wind up in jail.”‘ The three-star general, according to Gregory, left overnight.” In an interview with Kwitny, Quasha said that attorney-client privilege prevented him from saying whether he told Manor and Gregory they faced possible imprisonment, or whether he advised Manor to leave the Philippines. “I’m not confirming or denying that I gave General Manor such advice,” Quasha said. Harken’s familial ties to Nugan Hand and, indirectly, the intelligence community, are reminiscint of another of the company’s fatherson relationships: that of George W. Bush and his father, the former director of central intelligence. The Long Arm of Nugan Hand Harken, the Quashas and other key Harken figures have additional ties to Nugan Hand through dealings with a Swiss bank: William Quasha’s son Alan, the Harken director, is an attorney with the New York law firm of Quasha Wessely & Schneider. He is also a director of North principal stockholders in Harken. According to Harken’s proxy statement, NAR, which owns 20.24 percent of Harken’s stock, is a partnership between Quasha’s family and the Richemont Group Limited, a publicly-traded Swiss company. The Richemont Group is controlled by South-African billionaire Anthony E. “Anton” Rupert. NAR is also the parent company of Intercontinental Mining and Resources Limited cording to Harken’s proxy statement. The proxy also states that IMR “and its affiliates” are major shareholders in two Harken subsidiaries, EZ Serve Corp. and Tejas Power Corp. In 1989, E-Z Serve sold 80 percent of its Hawaiian subsidiary, Aloha Petroleum, Ltd., to IMR for $12 million. IMR later sold its interest in Aloha. Alan Quasha also sits on the board of directors of Frontier Oil and Refining Co. of Denver, along with Harken President Mikel Faulkner. Like the Richemont Group, Frontier is headed by Anton Rupert. Last October, Harken and Frontier announced that E-Z Serve would purchase Frontier Oil Corp., a subsidiary of Frontier Oil and Refining. The Frontier group later backed out of the deal. When Rupert acquired Frontier in a hostile take over in 1988, he announced an $85 million “revolving credit facility” with Union Bank of Switzerland, replacing all of the refiner’s previous “working capital facilities,” according to National Petroleum News. In October 1988, Business Week reported that Union Bank held a 5.5-percent stake in Harken. Published accounts have linked Union Bank to Nugan Hand. After Nugan Hand co-founder Frank Nugan was found shot to death in his Mercedez-Benz 90 miles outside of Sydney in January 1980, it Was discovered that he had forged the signature of New South Wales Attorney General Frank. Walker on a letter to Union Bank, opening an account in Walker’s name. At the time, Walker was directing criminal fraud proceedings against Nugan and his brother Frank \(who was also charged with obstruction of justice and emvolving the family fruit business. “The only reason for writing such a letter,” according to The Crimes of Patriots, “would be to try to frame Walker, to embarrass or blackmail him. But Walker says he never heard about it until the letter was found after Nugan’s death.” Another key Nugan Hand figure also had dealings with Union Bank. Bernie Houghton, described in The Crimes of Patriots as “the mystery man of Nugan Hand [and] perhaps its most important figure,” was well acquainted with a traveling Union Bank official. Houghton, a secretive Texan who may actually have introduced Nugan to his future partner, Michael Hand, introduced the Union Bank official to Nugan Hand representatives in Asia, according to The Crimes of Patriots. Union Bank was also central in the CIAassisted “constitutional coup” that brought down the government of Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1975. The so-called Gough Whitlam affair erupted when “a package of fake documents that was used to start a political scandal over the obtaining of Arab loans through a shady middleman … was sent off with a Union Bank cover letter,” according to The Crimes of Patriots. “By the time the opposition parliamentarians who received the package had turned its contents over to the press, the signature had been torn off the letter. Even though the documents were later exposed as bogus, their 14 JULY 12, 1991