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== –7——-. -== —-7′.-FOE fs ,,, 0 _ Trig PEOPz dir _.=_. tP c—. HI PR I El`I S’ — , , _ ,io it ,,1, 0 1, iiii la ,4J , 11,1.’11111mo ‘ I! ,. I.. ii N111111101 , , I II III 11E10 it 1 i l 10’1’111 ‘ 1 ‘ _ . –_,-,.. -….. —-,……_ __ _____ ,,…….._ –z.. -=—–Gm — TETXDB SERvER \(,, The Texas Observer Publishing Co.. 1984 Ronnie Dugger, Publisher Vol. 76, No. 17 7 .1: , .’ -7 August 31, 1984 Incorporating the State Observer and the East Texas Democrat, which in turn incorporated the Austin Forum-Advocate. EDITOR Geoffrey Rips ASSOCIATE EDITOR Dave Denison EDITOR AT LARGE Ronnie Dugger SOCIAL CAUSE EDITOR Chula Sims EDITORIAL INTERN: Teo Furtado WASHINGTON CORRESPONDENT: Al Watkins LAYOUT AND DESIGN: Alicia Daniel EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD: Frances Barton, Austin,; Elroy Bode, Kerrville; Chandler Davidson, Houston; Bob Eckhardt, Washington, D.C.; Sissy Farenthold, Houston; Ruperto Garcia, Austin; John Kenneth Galbraith, Cambridge, Mass.; Lawrence Goodwyn, Durham, N.C.; George Hendrick, Urbana, Ill.; Molly Ivins, Dallas; Larry L. King, Washington, D.C.; Maury Maverick, Jr., San Antonio; Willie Morris, Oxford, Miss.; Kaye Northcott, Austin; James Fred Schmidt, Tehachapi, Cal., Robert Sherrill, Tallahassee, Fla. CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Warren Burnett, Nina Butts, Jo Clifton, Craig Clifford, John Henry Faulk, Ed Garcia. Bill Helmer, Jack Hopper, Amy Johnson. Laurence Jolidon, Mary Lenz, Matt Lyon, Rick Piltz, Susan Raleigh, Paul Sweeney, Michael Ventura, Lawrence Walsh. CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHERS: Alan Pogue, Russell Lee, Scott Van Osdol, Alicia Daniel. CONTRIBUTING ARTISTS: Jeff Danziger, Beth Epstein, Dan Hubig, Pat Johnson. Kevin Kreneck, Carlos Lowry, Joe McDermott, Ben Sargent, Gail Woods. A journal of free voices We will serve no group or party but will hew hard to the truth as we find it and the right as we see it. We are dedicated to the whole truth, to human values above all interests, to the rights of humankind as the foundation of democracy; we will take orders from none but our own conscience, and never will we overlook or misrepresent the truth to serve the interests of the powerful or cater to the ignoble in the human spirit. Writers are responsible for their own work, but not for anything they have not themselves written, and in publishing them we do not necessarily imply that we agree with them because this is a journal of free voices. Managing Publisher Cliff Olofson Advertising & Development Director Dana Loy Subscription Manager Alicia Daniel Circulation Assistant Stefan Wanstrom Consultant Frances Barton Editorial and Business Office 600 West 7th Street, Austin, Texas 78701 The Texas Observer at Austin, Texas. years. S56. One year rate for full-time students. $13. Airmail, foreign, group, and bulk rates on request. Microfilm editions available from University Microfilms Intl.. 300 N. Zeeb Road. Ann Arbor. Michigan 48106. Copyright 1984 by Texas Observer Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Material may not be reproduced without permission. POSTMASTER: Send form 3579 to: 600 West 7th Street, Austin, Texas 78701. 2 AUGUST 31, 1984 PAGE TWO Doggett Campaign in High Gear Austin BETWEEN NOW and November 6, the crucial equation for state Senator Lloyd Doggett to solve involves the amount of money that must be raised to add to his base of support from the Democratic primary in order to pull enough votes from the yet uncommitted to defeat Phil Gramm in the general election. In a state with wide expanses to traverse and more than a dozen major television markets, television air-time becomes the determining factor in a close election. Doggett has devoted a good portion of his summer to raising the money necessary to provide television advertising during September and October throughout the state. In an interview conducted in his Austin campaign office on August 1, Sen. Doggett discussed the campaign he is waging against Phil Gramm for the U.S. Senate nomination. Following delays caused by his participation in the state legislature’s special session in June and the Democratic National Convention in July, Doggett pronounced his campaign “in high gear.” He had just returned from a two-day campaign swing through Texas, hitting Vernon, Wichita Falls, Bowie, Sherman, Denison, Lufkin, Longview, and San Augustine. “Much of the attention has got to be focused on fundraising,” Doggett said. “Gramm has got millions of dollars to spend, and we’ve got a smaller deficit than the other candidates from the spring, but a deficit nonetheless. Raising money in smaller amounts, as we’ve been able to do, is wonderful, but it takes longer to put together the lcind -of resources that we need to have to respond to his [Gramm’s] media blitz that has been going on non-stop since the runoff, even to be able to respond by September. It’s going to take a significant amount of our energy devoted toward fundraising.” Now Doggett is no slouch in the fundraising department, though he trails Gramm in that regard. According to the national office of Common Cause, Doggett and Gramm are among the top ten Senate fundraisers and spenders in the country. Gramm ranks fifth, and Doggett is sixth. Through the June 30 federal reporting period, Gramm had raised $3.7 million and Doggett had raised $3.1 million. While Gramm and Doggett both spent significant amounts on their primary campaigns, Gramm faced little real opposition in the Republican primary and was free virtually to ignore his Republican opponents and begin campaigning for the November election as soon as he announced his candidacy in 1983. Doggett, on the other hand, had to fight his way through a grueling primary and runoff before setting his sights and his advertising on a Republican opponent. Doggett and Gramm are also among the top ten senatorial recipients of political action committee contributions. According to federal reports filed for the period January 1, 1984 through June 30, Doggett has received $267,876.74 in PAC