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there. Small one-room houses where we slept on the floor and played with toys made out of boards. \(I hear that’s “in” now: sleeping on the floor is good for you and toys made out of wood are natural. But it will never be “in” for some of talk about where we would go next, where all the work was, and where they had been. I forget all that sometimes. And then it comes in swarms of mental images or words that someone said to someone in the fields. Then I remember the hopelessness of it all. The transferred hope that I’d escape only if the right amount of time was given to an education they always thought would put me elsewhere. Images of mothers following children halfway to school with small pieces of limbs in hand enforcing the educational requirement. Later, in highschool history class: “The migrants don’t see the need for, an education. They only see the child as a potential worker.” I smiled, thought of senoras armed with threats for children who would walk too slow to get to school, and saw right through the argument. Then it occurs to me again: the older ones, without whose work we couldn’t eat or move where we could eat. Those “other hands” who had to stop attending school to work instead the luck I had in being around after enough hands were in the field. Then I realize the sacrifices made to put me here, and see them work the fields when I go home, or watch them work in service stations changing tires, or . . . . -1 watch the old man finally cross the street, climb into a bus, and leave. He walks the same still, bent for ward at the waist, leaning into the wind even on the bus. 0 Ruperto Garcia 1981 Chavez vs. Orendain The Texas Farmworkers’ Split The Two Unions Take Different Tacks On Strategy and, Now, Legislation By Joe Holley Austin The setting was the Pharr-San JuanAlamo gymnasium on a blustery, springlike Sunday morning earlier this year; the occasion, the third annual convention of the United Farm Workers/AFLCIO, Texas Project. The short, sturdylooking man in the pale-blue Mexican wedding shirt, his dark, Indian-mask face still serene and unlined, his lank hair, though graying at the temples, still raven-black, stood at the lectern and looked out over the rows of brown faces, the bright red banners, the placards. Suddenly, the 1960’s. Robert Kennedy The writer, formerly with the Newsweek bureau in Dallas, is editor of The Texas Humanist, a monthly publication of the Texas Committee for the Humanities. lives and Martin Luther King and Cesar Chavez, “a new breed of American hero,” is transforming la causa into the most significant agricultural labor movement in U.S. history. Los campesinos, shouts of huelga!, their boycotts, and ultimately their contracts with growers are extending an influence far beyond the vineyards of California’s San Joaquin Valley. “It sometimes seems that the only pure cause left is Cesar Chavez’s grape strike,” John Leonard is writing in The New York Times. That was fifteen years ago. This year, when Chavez spoke to the 500 or so Texas farmworkers who had made their way to San Juan from La Paloma, Los Indios, Mesquite Acres, La Feria, all the other dusty little Valley colonias, it was something other than marches, strikes, and boycotts he had on this mind. “We talk about justice and dignity and all of those phrases that are beautiful and reach the heart of all of us,” the 54year-old labor leader told his people. “But on this day we want more pragmatic strategies.” Chavez talked of California, where collective bargaining rights finally came to farmworkers in 1975. It is because of that law, he explained, the movement in California is much farther along than it is in Texas or Arizona or Florida. “We have to elect good people so that in the future we will be enjoying the benefits of laws passed for us in Texas,” he said. As convention delegates clapped rhythmically, he posed, arms upraised and hands clasped, with State Rep. Juan Hinojosa, State Sen. Carlos Truan, and State Senatorial candidate Hector Uribe \(who two days after that defeated Clements-endorsed Ricardo Hinojosa in adopted resolutions urging action in Austin workers’ compensation for TETxDBSERvER The Texas Observer Publishing Co., 1981 Vol. 73, No. 8 xoswo* April 17, 1981 Incorporating the State Observer and the East Texas Democrat, which in turn incorporated the Austin Forum-Advocate. Editor and Publisher Ronald Dugger Staff Reporter Mary Lenz Business Manager Cliff Olofson Editorial and Business Office 600 West 7th Street, Austin, Texas 78701 Published by Texas Observer PUblishing Co., biweekly except for a three-week interval between issues twice a year, in January and July; 25 issues per year. Second-class postage paid at Austin, Texas. years, $49. One year rate for full-time students, $12. Airmail, foreign, group, and bulk rates on request. Microfilmed by MCA, 1620 Hawkins Avenue, Box 10, Sanford, N.C. 27330. POSTMASTER: Send form 3579 to: 600 West 7th Street, Austin, Texas 78701. 4 APRIL 17, 1981