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A Public Service Message from the American Income Life Insurance CompanyExecutive offices, Waco, TexasBernard Rapoport, Pres. Spanish Surnamed American Employment in the Southwest One of a series of excerpts from SPANISH SURNAMED AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT IN THE. SOUTH WEST by Fred H. Schmidt, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California at Los Angeles. Prepared for the Colorado Civil Rights Commission under the auspices of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Printed by U. S. Governtnent Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. $2.00 A FURTHER WORD ABOUT THE REGION The population of the Southwest is more urbanized than that of the United States. Over 80 percent of its people live in urban areas, as compared with only 70 percent of the U.S. population. \(An interesting facet of the urbanization of persons of Spanish surname is that they, too, are about 80 percent urbanized, and over 75 percent of them live in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, which identify the major urban concentrations. This contrasts with the fact that less than 65 percent of the U.S. The lack of water in broad areas has driven the people into an oasis society; they cluster largely along the water edges, beside streams in mountain valleys, and around the scattered wells. In 1965 there were over 32 million of them one-sixth of the Nation’s population. The two great watersheds made by the Continental Divide tilt the land and the people toward the seas. Over half of the people live in the maritime counties, those with shores open to the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, and their numbers are increasing at a spectacular rate. From 1920 to 1966 the population of the Southwest increased 252.6 percent more than five times the U.S. rate! There are reasons to believe that the Southwest will continue to grow in population at a faster rate than the Nation. Projections for the period from the 1960 census to the year 1985 indicate that all five States will experience a higher percent of net growth in population than will the United States. The net increase for the United States during this projected period is predicted to be 48.1 percent, while the increase for the five states will range from 54 percent in Texas to 129.8 percent in Arizona .. . The Southwest had a phenomenal increase in total employment from 1940 to 1960. Its rate of employemnt increase in the two decades was more than twice as fast as it was in the United States. In recent years, the States of the Southwest have begun to register unemployment rates that compare unfavorably with the U.S. rates. By 1967 three of the [ Southwestern] States had unemployment rates higher than the United States. However, there is considerable evidence that these rates are of only limited use in suggesting how workers are faring in the region’s labor market. The word unemployment is too tightly packaged. It must be recalled that measuring the rate of unemployment is done at one point in time and that it is not a measure of the number of those who have experienced unemployment during a period of time, nor does it measure those who have part-time employment and want fuller employment. The index of subemployment, which the Department of Labor has begun to construct, offers a more meaningful concept of employment opportunities. This index takes into consideration not only joblessness but the extent of part-time work when full-time work is wanted by the jobholder. Also, it counts those who are working at such marginal jobs that they cannot make adequate earnings, such as heads of households who are under 65 and earn less than $60 a week, and others under 65 who earn less than $56 a week. It also estimates the number of able males who have withdrawn from the labor force or have not been located in other surveys. Using these criteria . . . the subemployment rate for San Antonio was 47 percent almost one-half its labor force. Other slum areas in the survey, ranked in order of their percentage rates, were St. Louis, 39; Philadelphia, 34; New York, 29; San Francisco, 25; and Boston, 24. The range from Boston’s 24 percent subemployment rate to San Antonio’s 47 percent tells a great deal about the differences between these two cities. Although the unemployment rate in the Roxbury area of Boston was virtually identical at the time with that of the east and west sides of San Antonio, employment prospects were much worse in San Antonio. By itself, therefore, the rate of unemployment tells only a partial story. The composite subemployment rate discloses much more about-the adequacy of , employment opportunities in a community. And the sampling of cities thus far suggests that persons in disadvantaged areas of southwestern cities are at considerably more of an employment disadvantage than are those who live in some of the more widely known slum areas of the country. Another measure of the adequacy of employment opportunities may be the number of persons going into private household employment. One characteristic of a well-to-do class is its ability to command the personal service of others. The notion of a house with servants universally suggests affluence, and the maid, the butler, the housekeeper, the family nurse are all suggestive of a master-servant relationship that results from that affluence. One sees this with the movie-sponsored image of a “proper Bostonian” attended by servants. Despite that image, the chances of finding servants in a household in San Antonio are over twice as good as they are in Boston. The extent of private household workers per household in Boston is only 1.8 percent; the number in San Antonio is twice as high, 3.7 percent. Even in Laredo, often referred to as America’s poorest city, the chances of finding servants in a home are over two and one-half times better than in Boston . . . The Southwest and the Southeast recently came to the Nation’s attention in quite another way. When the Citizens Board of Inquiry Into Hunger and Malnutrition in the United States reported in 1968 on the unmet nutritional needs of the country, the Southwest came into focus as one of the main areas with those needs . . . These findings were treated with editorial surprise in the Nation’s press, for they were in sharp contrast not only to the notions of pervading affluence in our society, but also to all of the accounts of legendary wealth, industrial growth, and prosperity that are associated with the Southwest. The picture of hunger abiding there alongside great wealth struck some as improbable. But there is an even more improbable situation troubling the region. Its improbability comes from the casual treatment given to something of such immense importance. One of the major problems of the Southwest is not just that it contains large numbers of the hungry poor, but that it is the only part ‘of the United States that has daily and intimate contact with the poverty of another nation. Only a fence line or river that is often wadable separate the four border states from Mexico.