the campuses than from anywhere else. The October march against the war from the U.T. campus to the Capitol has been covered in this journal. 35 A petition promoted by the U.T. Young Republicans and signed by 4,600 U.T. students supporting U.S. policy as “essential” has been sent to Tower, who said he sent copies to Johnson and Gen. Westmoreland in Vietnam. 36 The U.T. Young Democrats back Johnson’s policy, urge negotiations, condemn S.D.S. for indicating doubt of the good faith of U.S. actions in Vietnam, and criticize the U.T. Young Republicans for “McCarthyism at its worst” in criticizing S.D.S. 37 A telegram of support signed by 2,136 Texas Aggies has gone to Johnson 3 8 In a referendum, University of Houston students voted, 2,826 to 314, in favor of Johnson’s policy. 39 The student association at Texas Tech, 18 students at East Texas State University in Commerce who demonstrated, 670 Rice University students who signed a petition \(2,488 students being ty at Southwest Texas State, signers of petitions at San Antonio College, St. Mary’s, Incarnate Word, and Trinity, and students at some high schools have also shown their support of U.S. policy in Vietnam.” In reaction against draft-card burnings, some fraternity men at Southern Methodist have been wearing sweatshirts showing a large reproduction of a draft card and bearing the words, “My Draft CardI am Proud of It!” 41 Republicans in Texas bitterly attacked Sen. Robert Kennedy on the blood-giving question. The Bexar County GOP information and opinion committee said he should be drafted and put on the front line; if his statement “was not treason, then it would be difficult” to find a statement that was, the committee said. 42 Peter O’Donnell, state GOP chairman, said Kennedy was encouraging “those who want to send blood to the enemy.” 43 When the San Antonio Express asked Democrats about the subject, Cty. Judge Charles Grace tended to side with Kennedy, saying he saw nothing wrong with being humanitarian, but didn’t think Kennedy meant giving blood to our enemies. Cong. Henry Gonzalez said, “I can’t see aiding and abetting the enemy at all.” County Clerk Jimmy Knight said GOP criticism was about 90% out of context. Bexar County Democratic chairman John Daniels said he didn’t agree with Kennedy; neither did Reps. Tom Lee or Jake Johnson.” MEN IN UNIFORM have been taking a part in the debate. Almost all of them support U.S. policy. Those few who publicly criticize it have found they are subject to harsh military penalties. Five Texas veterans wounded at Vietnam, four of them still in pain from their wounds, were the subject of a long feature in the Houston Chronicle criticizing critics of Vietnam policy. One of the veterans said the kids demonstrating are just scared of the draft. Another called the demonstrations “a bunch of crazy idiots.” This story was accompanied by a photograph of the five wounded men.” Press dispatches have quoted servicemen in Vietnam, including Texans, questioning the patriotism of the demonstrators.” Letters have appeared in many Texas, as also in many other U.S. dailies from servicemen, condemning criticism of the war. Seven servicemen signed one such letter in a Texas daily saying opponents of U.S. policy are “pro-communists, draft-dodgers, or simply do not understand the situation,” and other military correspondents in Texas dailies have said demonstrators help the enemy, should be drafted and sent to the front lines to “serve as cannon fodder,” blaspheme GIs dying for them, should lose their citizenship, and should be left alone a while in a dark alley with servicemen. 47 One of the demonstrators at the recent El Paso march against the war” turned out to be Lt. Henry H. Howe, Jr., 23, of Boulder, Colo. When he could not identify himself to a policeman he was arrested, and his military I.D. card found in one of his shoes. He has been charged by the Army with contempt toward officials, conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman, and conduct of a nature to bring discredit to the armed forces,” and a general courtmartial has been ordered. 5 Pfc. Winstel R. Belton, Negro, from Milwaukee, went on a hunger strike to avoid being shipped to Vietnam with his division. Covering his court-martial in San Antonio, San Antonio Express reporter James McCrory asked, “Why would the accused, who is reported to have said ‘I’m not going to fight against those oppressed people in Vietnam’ . . . ask his attorney to withdraw any arguments questioning the validity of the U.S. position in Vietnam? . . . In opening arguments before his client asked him to desist, civilian defense attorney George Altman raised the question of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam in the absence of any declaration of war. . . . Altman also touched on . . . the weaponry used in Vietnam . . .” The five military officers hearing the case gave Belton five years in prison and a dishonorable discharge; by a negotiated verdict, however, Belton was to get no more than one year in prison and a bad conduct discharge, suspended if he would go on to Vietnam, which he didas a private instead of a Pfc. 51 A few letters have begun appearing in the letters columns, critical of the war. Dr. Morton Rieber of Houston upheld the right of dissent by the demonstrators in letters in October. More recent letters from women in Texas dailies express concern for their own sons, opposition to their “dying for some other country” and to war as un-Christian. When a letter from a Texas GI in Vietnam criticizing dissent on the war was made the subject of a story in the Valley Morning Star, Mrs. Nancy Hoot, formerly of Austin, now in Florida, wrote the GI telling him that support of his courage and effort was not incompatible with trying to stop the war. 52 H. L. Hunt, the Dallas oil billionaire, said in a letter to an editor that the protest demonstrations “may disclose the extent to which communism has penetrated the fabric of American life.” 53 Texas Western appears to have come under pressure because of the participation of a profesor from there in the El Paso demonstration, but 63 faculty members have signed a letter sent to both El Paso dailies declaring that some of them disagreed with the demonstrators, but they had a right to demonstrate. 54 The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals has decided, 2-1, not to make permanent its order against S.D.S. marching in Austin streets in October, on grounds that the question is moot. This was the case in which the city council refused S.D.S. the permit, Dist. Judge Herman Jones set the refusal aside, and the high Texas court then set Judge Jones’ order aside. TEXAS DAILIES have generally sided with U.S. policy and occasionally lash hard at demonstrators. The Houston Post launched a campaign to “cast a ballot in support of Americans in Vietnam” by giving bars of soap at appointed places in Houston, the soap to be distributed by GIs. The Denton RecordChronicle has sent a correspondent to cover the war ; Robert Baskin of the Dallas News is over there. Many dailies uphold the right of dissent, but lean heavily on the dissenters as ill-advised, unpatriotic, or almost treasonous. The Houston Post argued that by encouraging Hanoi, demonstrations “may result in the killing of more Americans in Vietnam, along with more South Viet. namese noncombatants, including women, children, and the very old.” 55 The Austin American captioned a two-panel picture of a pacifist and a student with a draft-card sweatshirt on as pictures of “Pacifist and Patriot.” 56 The Dallas News spoke of “disgust, loathing, and anger” about the demonstrations.” In editorial cartoons the Texas dailies have most harshly conveyed their views. Staff cartoonists on metropolitan dailies in Texas have shown a Marine face-down in Vietnam, with the caption: “Senators, We’re Already Giving Them Blood”; a letter dripping muck, from “U.S. Peace Creeps” to military personnel, with the caption : “Garbage”; a bearded peacenik fanning flames around a GI as the GI tries to beat them out; a tousle-haired beatnik stuffing himself with turkey in the midst of demonstration signs, with a GI lying dead in Vietnam on a cross-panel; Mao tseTung saying ‘My Fifth Column’ about professors at teach-ins and assorted unsavory demonstrators; a peacenik at P.U. burning a draft card, with the caption, “Color him red ?pink ?yellow?-??”; and a bearded, tatterdemalion demonstrator kicking the bulldog, patriotism, which then starts out after him. 58 The Texas press generally played the Nov. 27 demonstration against the war in Washington, attended by from 20,000 to 50,000, with front-page emphasis. Scattered reports of the participation of about ten U.T. students made some Texas dailies. Generally it was not reported in Texas that one of the eight speakers was a Texan \(see ]Dallas Times-Herald, 12-3, 2Austin American, 11-11. 3Austin American, 11-24. 4Austin Ameri December 10, 1965 3
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