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supporting Yarborough’s bill enthusiastically. Tower, in his weekly report home, said the Yarborough bill “is particularly expensive and is opposed by the Administration, the Defense Department, and the Veterans Administration,” and quoted not named House veterans’ affairs experts that they cannot accept it. Tower predicted a compromise on a Viet Nam GI Bill. When the President doubled the draft call, Yarborough responded with a comment, not on Viet Nam, but on the benefits bill. “As more men are activated,” he said, “more lives are interrupted, more educations are halted, and more careers damaged by time in the military service,” and the need for his benefits bill becomes greater. YARBOROUGH’S TENACITY in fighting for this legislation for several sessions occasioned recurrent remark. Sen. Javits, R.-N.Y., who opposed the measure, said, “I haverarely seen such dedication Our readers may be interested in this account about the Observer in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of Sunday, July 25. By a Staff Correspondent of the Post-Dispatch AUSTIN, Tex., July 24The rich and high-riding establishment that runs Texas, a power structure topped by President Lyndon B. Johnson, can count on having at least one holdout critic to remind it of its shortcomings. He is Ronnie Dugger, editor and general manager of a small but exceedingly sharptoothed liberal journal called the Texas Observer. Dugger and his paper are not part of anybody’s establishment. One of the Observer’s targets in its relentless sniping at the establishment has been Edward Clark, the Austin attorney, banker, and friend of the President, whom Mr. Johnson named to be ambassador to Australia. Last December, in the Observer’s tenth anniversary issue, Larry Goodwyn had discoursed affectionately about Clark’s record as a master craftsman among Texas lobby 14 The Texas Observer A.A1161111t11.1 11A,I\\AAlt MARTIN ELFANT Sun Life of Canada 1001 Century Building Houston, Texas CA 4-0686 to a cause and such indefatigable pursuit of it. I hardly recall a bill which the committee on labor and public welfare dealt with in which the chairman of the subcommittee on veterans affairs [Yarborough] has so greatly succeeded in tying in, at least by way of illustration, what is so very deeply his conviction on this question.” “First, I pay ,tribute to the senator from Texas,” Saltonstall said with a stinger. “For many years, the senator from Texas led the fight for the measure, despite opposition on the part of President Eisenhower, President Kennedy, President Johnson, the Veterans’ Administration, the Defense Department, and the Bureau of the Budget. He has been an articulate and persistent advocate. I wish that he were on my side of this question.” Yarborough was also commended variously for his “perseverance,” “zeal,” “untiring effort,” and “tenacity” by Sens. Bartlett, Fong, Cooper, Dominick, Cannon, Long of Missouri, and Gruening. ists and a backstage manipulator of the legislature. Goodwyn spoke of the “sheer grandeur of Ed’s Machiavellianism” and paid tribute to him as a man of mellow Southern accent and a “truly great lobbyist.” After Clark’s elevation to the American diplomatic corps, Dugger in his current issue was content to let the matter pass without fireworks. He summed it up as follows: “Johnson’s designation of Ed Clark as his ambassador to Australia was the most political ambassadorial appointment he has made and attracted wide attention because Clark is known as a conservative behind-the-scenes force in Texas politics, especially that having to do with the economic power structure.” Circulation of 6000 The Texas Observer, published twice a month in Austin, has a circulation of about 6000 and a full-time staff of three persons. Last year it lost $1117 on a budget of $33,000, about half of which went for salaries and fees. Dugger, who is in his middle 30s and was educated at the University of Texas and at Oxford University, has not become rich, but he and the paper have achieved a degree of fame. And although the Observer’s circulation is miniscule by mass media standards, copies find their way to the desks of the mighty and even into the White House… Dugger has been editor since the paper first appeared late in 1954, except for the period of 1960-62 when Willie Morris, now an editor of Harper’s Magazine, occupied the chair. It has a stable of gifted writers and kindred spirits who contribute to its pages. , , Self-Sustaining Chief owner of the Observer is Mrs. R. D. Randolph of Houston, a wealthy liberal Democrat who got into politics in the first Stevenson presidential campaign in 1952. For the first eight years, Mrs. Randolph subsidized the paper, but since then, Dugger says, it has been on a self-sustaining basis. In a report on the Observer’s finances last February, Dugger said that 89 per cent of the paper’s income in the last year had come from subscriptions and extra copy orders, and only 8 per cent came from advertising. The Observer, he said, was now being financed by its readers to an extent rare in American journalism. Politically, ‘the Observer has been on the side of Senator Ralph Yarborough, whom Dugger recently called “the best senator this state has had in this century,” and against the conservative Texas establishment as represented by Gov. John B. Connally and, in the past if not the present, President Johnson. The LBJ brand is not worn by the Texas Observer or by Mrs. Randolph, who was the state’s Democratic national committeewoman in the late 1950s. Among Texas liberals, the brand is still suspect, although Mr. Johnson’s White House performance has greatly improved his image. Urges Independent Action Dugger’s fierce independence and his unwillinghess to climb into anybody’s hip pocket are exemplified in an editorial urging the liberals of Texas to cut loose from all present organizations, including organized labor, and speak up for themselves. “Sadly but with clear minds,” he wrote in the July 9 issue, “the Texas liberals must accept and cope with the fact that in the United States now, and particularly in Texas, organized labor is part of the power structure, from which citizens must strive to be independent if they are to be independent citizens. “Labor men can be just as free and independent citizens as anyone else, but not as labor men. President Johnson now runs the power structure, and in Texas the President uses Gov. Connally as his spokesman and dispenser of power. “Therefore, any Texas bunch that is dependent on labor money for its meaning or its program is part of the power structure which it is the duty of free and thoughtful citizens to evaluate and criticize freely.” Attacks on Connally In recent months Dugger and the Observer have been flaying Gov. Connally, the President’s friend and ally, for seeking to get the Texas gubernatorial term extended from two to four years. “Only a governor drunk with power and mad for more of it,” Dugger said in April, “could brazen as much as John Bowden Connally is brazening. now.” Using such phrases as “this hack of a Governor, this front for the lobby,” Dugger depicted Connally as a man elected by the Big Lobby oil, gas, insurance, banks, utilities and lashed at him for turning the state’s colleges and universities over to a political “superboard.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch Story on the Observer