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soever, in the amount of several thousand dollars for airing their views in a public discussion. Nor does this exhaust the list. . . . It can easily be understood why any member of the academic profession would be hesitant . . . to vouch for the integrity of the administration or of boards past, present, or future in matters related to academic freedom.” T HUS HAS TEXAS TECH labored through a spring of re-examination laced with some rancor, but also with plain speaking. Colleges and Democracy Dr. George I. Sanchez, the distinguished University of Texas educator, delivered a paper on campus late in April that bears on a prevailing confusion between democracy and higher education that has never confused him, as it should not any believer in the free pursuit of truth. We take brief excerpts from his paper with his permission.Ed. Years ago, someone asked the distinguished scholar, my esteemed friend Professor Frederick Eby, “To whom does the 12 The Texas Observer University of Texas belong?” Unhesitantly he answered, “To the world of scholarship.” The University belongs to the world of scholarship, to those who search for truth at the highest levels of intelligence; and who, then, promulgate truth to their younger colleagues; the students who, too, are seeking truth. This promulgation is a give and take affair; for the mature scholar learns from his junior, also. This is one of the reasons why I refer to both as “colleagues.” This search for truth must operate in a climate of freedom, untrampled by crass In Texas after a day’s fishing beer’s the one… for good taste, good fun 7’1.`–/ Wherever you fish for sporton the ocean, by the booming surf, or on some quiet country pond, it’s great at the end of the day to head for a rewarding glass of beer. While you’re talking over the ones that got away, or pan-frying the ones that didn’t, you enjoy the hearty taste and cool refreshment only a glass of beer can give you so well. Yes, whatever your sportbowling or strolling, golfing or gardening a frosty glass of beer makes a naturally great accompaniment. UNITED STATES BREWERS ASSOCIATION, INC. 905 International Life Bldg., Austin 1, Texas mundane restrictions or lay interference. Just as one cannot teach democracy in a concentration camp, so one cannot ,pursue truth fettered by handcuffs and leg irons. While the beautiful concept “Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free” is unchallengeable, it has to be predicated on the fact that, unless you are a mystic, only under freedom can you know the truth. It is true that the University must have support, material and political, from the society in which it functions; and the University must not seek to determine directly the course of that society in its pursuit of defensible goalsthough members of the University, as individuals, as citizens, have the right to question and refute openly the defensibility of those goals and the procedures associated with them. The role of the University, and of the scholars who form it, is not social or political. It is an intellectual role, though their teachings may have profound effects on socio-political goals and processes. This is not to say that the University is asocial or apolitical, but it is to say that the social and political role of the University must be intimately linked with the quest for truth. On the other hand, the society, the political structure, is not authorized to meddle in the affairs of the world of scholarship, except to protect, applaud, and encourage that world in its pursuit of truth under freedom. [After an extended analysis of the history of colleges and of their special development in Latin-America, Dr. Sanchez returned to “our own University \(and by that I do not mean the University of Texas, but the composite of U.S. American uniIs is now not uncommon for state legislatures to debate whether this or that course should be taught, to say what degree programs should be and how many, or to entrust these decisions to equally non-professional boards or commissions. Then we have lay boards of trustees deciding as to what academic standards incipient scholars should have before entering the University. It is like letting me tell my physician which of my students should or should not have an appendectomy, and who should perform it! It is very distressing to me, not only because of the affront to academic freedom and to civic freedom, but also because of the affront to the pursuit of truth when a professor is dismissed because the supposed “trustees” do not like his politics. Or when merited promotions, in salary or rank, are not granted because some “trustee” or someone highly placed in the political structure says, “Well, he is a very fine scholar, but …” Who should judge scholars and scholarship? Scholars, of course. Is the legislature composed of scholars? Are the boards of trustees? One of the most amusing arguments in connection with current legislative proposals here at home [Dr. Sanchez wrote this paper late in February, although he delivered it later] is that active educators should be excluded from the highest higher education board, because they have some sort of biasa vested interest, so to speak. In almost the same breath it is argued that the board should see to it that the colleges