lems in education, employment, and housing and to help them participate in community efforts. “The solution to these problems,” President Johnson has said, “does not rest on a massive program in Washington, nor can it rely solely on the strained resources of local authority. They require us to create new concepts of cooperation, a creative federalism, between the national capitol and the leaders of local communities.” A realization that this is a job bigger than any one community was evidenced by a declaration of the Municipal Association of New Hampshire that “many of the towns in New Hampshire are not effective instruments of self government” because “they simply do not have the fiscal resources nor the talents to support services.” It urged regional planning and greater responsibility on the part of the state for welfare programs. THESE are simply examples of the growing awareness of the urban crisis and of the existence of plans to cope with it. In every community there are probably individuals who recognize the dangers that face the city and faltering steps are being taken to solve the problems. But too often plans are dictated by expediency and seldom is a plan made in terms of the whole need. Piecemeal measures are not enough. To be effective plans require the cooperation of all groups in the community. Leadership is necessary, but the entire city must be made aware of the problems and must understand the needfor action and the various alternatives and be capable of intelligent decision. It is truly later than we think. The time for action is now. As Carlisle has said, “Nothing ever happens in this world but once. What I do now I do for all time. It is over and gone with all its eternity of solemn meaning.” 0 Yarborough vs. Bush The Substance of the Senate Contest Sen. Ralph Yarborough, Democrat, is ahead, but is taking his opponent seriously. George Bush, Republican, is behind, but running fast. This would seem to be a fair summary of the moods one apprehends during visits to the headquarters of the candidates for the U.S. Senate seat from Texas that Yarborough now occupies. Last Sunday the Belden Poll stated that Yarbcrough is leading Bush, 60-32%, with just 6% undecided \(and 2% going to Jack Carscorrelated with Belden’s figures giving Johnson a 62 -32% advantage in Texas over Goldwater. Bush was scheduled to open his stretch drive formally with a statewide television program this week \(after our have been stumping all over the state with uncommon energy all summer. The Observer here presents analyses of the central themes they have been advancing since Yarborough beat Gordon McLendon for the Democratic nomination in May and Bush beat Jack Cox in the runoff primary for the Republican nomination in June. Ralph’s Case Senator Yarborough’s arguments on behalf of his re-election have fallen into three patternsstress on his and the Democratic Party’s legislative accomplishments and the breaking of some new ground he is scouting on legislation ; identification of his candidacy with President Johnson’s, and against Sen. Goldwater’s; and thrusts against Bush as an Easterner, a Goldwater man, and a big-money candidate. He says that the anti-poverty law he supported, as it passed the Senate, is designed for self-help and encourages local community planning. He speaks approvingly of the law’s job corps with residential con 2 The Texas Observer nervation camps, its work training and work-study programs, and its provision of loans and grants to help lower-income urban and rural families in job training, rehabilitation, and housing. Farm families forced into cities would cost far more on relief rolls than the $1500. top yearly benefit under the measure as he supported it, he said. The senator also pointed out that Texas gets an allocation, under the measure, for fundamental education to help adult functional illiterates train themselves to hold jobs and that this is important for this state “which has 879,000 adults over 22 with less than a sixth-grade education.” Yarborough voted for medicare under social security as it passed the Senate. Citizens over 65 are most often burdened with high medical costs, yet are the ones who can least afford to pay them, he argues: under medicare, a person provides for his medical needs in old age by paying into a health insurance program “during the most productive and economically convenient period of his life.” At present, he says, only half the country’s old people have any kind of health insurance, and only one in four of those who do have insurance have coverage for 75% or more of hospital costs, the minimum definition of adequacy of the American Hospital Assn. Yarborough delivered a major review of legislation he has backed, local and federal, during an appreciation dinner for him in Corpus Christi. He said his “best accomplishment” his seven years in the Senate was the enactment of the Padre Island national seashore law. Quietly, year after year, he said”I did not beat the drums nor fly my flags, but I did the work”he has supported every appropriation for the improvement of navigation along the coast ; helped pass legislation for more than $29 million in Rural Electrification Administration loans to electric co-op companies in the counties that were represented at the dinner; in eleven of those counties, federal grants totaling $4.5 million and loans totaling $641,000 were made under the Kennedy administration’s accelerated public works projectg program for water systems and sewerage to towns and cities that could not otherwise afford them. “These are the projects, along with the ship channels, dams and reservoirs, water research programs, hurricane and flood control programs that bring delegations of city officials, members of county court, members of river and watershed authorities, co-op delegations, into my office literally by the thousands year after year, for aid, which is always given, never refused,” he said. “While our efforts and achievements are largely unpublicized . .. there is a satisfaction beyond acclaim when a small town without a water system is enabled to provide its people for the first time with water and sewerage . .. when the course of a river is shored up a little to save a farmer’s crops, when a freeway opens up new avenues of commerce.” Yarborough returns frequently to his role as a principal sponsor in the current Congress’ enactment of five major education billsthe medical education, college classroom construction, vocational education, mental retardation, and library facilities acts. As chairman of the Veterans’ Subcommittee of the Senate, he has been concerned with the passage of much legislation affecting and benefiting veterans, such as the recent five-year extension of the Hill-Burton law, providing 4,000 more beds in VA hospitals. Yarborough also celebrates enactment, during the Democrats’ recent years, of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, which he co-authored, and under which 250,000 gifted college students \(20,000 in
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