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A dear colleague of mine in the 1959 session voted against an amendment to the election code, offered by a well known “liberal.” The amendment was tabled, and I explained to him what it had been meant to do. He said, “That should beWhy didn’t they let someone else offer it, and it would have passed.” He wanted to be known as a conservative; therefore, -he had voted against the amendment simply because a member known as a liberal had proposed it. He had never considered the merits! A few years ago I made a talk to a service club in Liberty. I read the dictionary definitions of “liberal” and “conservative” to the group without stating what term was being defined. Then I asked which political philosophy the members felt more closely matched theirs. Nearly all identified themselves with the definition of liberal. Immediately I asked who considered themselves “liberal” and “conservative.” Nearly all identified themselves as conservatives. This same anomaly between opinions and labels prevails in the legislature. Unfortunately, the public propaganda, above mentioned, has given these legislators who check their judgment to others some measure of protection through the ability of the establishment to mislead the public by this system of labeling. THE CONDITION MOST RE-SPONSIBLE for the lobbyists’ ability to apply and take advantage of the above factors is, the lack of a strong two-party system in this state. Party policy and party objectives do not really exist. The state platform of the Democratic Party is usually only a conglomeration of platitudes expressed in general terms. If we had a strong two-party system, each party would formulate specific objectives and legislation and could use the persuasive influence of party perpetuation in order to keep its members generally aligned behind its objectives. In Texas today, the saddest aspect of our state government is that we have no official group of legislators planning for the progress of our state. As it is, the governor has two or three major ideas, as do the speaker and the lieutenant governor: In the case of the latter two, these ideas, more often than not, involve special interest legislation for their supporters. The principal general policy of the lobby is opposition to any taxes and anything that will cost money or involve the expenditure of more funds. This is the vital status quo desired by the Third House, because no one knows where the “tax bomb” will hit. Anyone who will go along with this scheme is a friend. With this background it is easy to understand why all increased and new services come only when the governor espouses them and vigorously pushes them. That’s 2 The Texas Observer why higher education suffers so. It will continue so to suffer until a governor lays out exactly what will be done and who will pay, and pushes the program. We made some progress under Governor Daniel, but it has been eclipsed by the gigantic demands. \(I could say more on the political steps necessary to solve this problem under our present system, but that would be outIf Teias had a strong two-party system, the party leaders of each party would plan solutions to the problems in keeping withthe philosophy of the party, and members of the party would have a banner under which to unite. As it is, each legislator has his own more or less nebulous ideas, which usually culminate with the introduction of a bill that will not be heard of again until the next election. Of course, there are exceptions to this. Many worthy progressive proposals have been espoused by public-spirited legislators, and good fights made on them; but such proposals are doomed to failure unless the governor lends them his active support. If they were endorsed by a party in a strong two-party state, they would have a chance to become law. There are several other factors that contribute to the establishment’s control of the Texas legislature, such as the desire to be with the majority, the influence of the Speaker, and the knowledge that the public is generally unaware of the issues. However, I feel that but for the three matters I’ve mentioned, you would have a good sound legislature where the interests of the people would be served. A strong “people’s” governor could counter-balance the effect of the other factors. A “care Incorporating the State Observer and the East Texas Democrat, which in turn incorporated the State Week and Austin ForumAdvocate. We will serve no group or party but will hew hard to the truth as we find it and the right as we see it. We are dedicated to the whole truth, to human values above all interests, to the rights of man as the foundation of democracy; we will take orders from none but our own conscience, and never will we overlook or misrepresent the truth to serve the interests of the powerful or cater to the ignoble in the human spirit. Editor and General Manager, Ronnie Dugger. Pitrtner, Mrs. R. D. Randolph. Business Manager, Sarah Payne. Contributing Editors, J. Frank Dobie, Larry Goodwyn, Franklin Jones, Lyman Jones, Georgia Earnest Klipple, Willie Morris, James Presley, Charles Ramsdell, Roger Shattuck, Dan Strawn, Tom Sutherland, Charles Alan Wright. Staff Artist, Charles Erickson. Contributing Photographer, Russell Lee. Subscription Representatives: Austin, Mrs. Helen C. Spear, 2615 Pecos, HO 5-1805; Dallas, Mrs. Cordye Hall, 5835 Ellsworth, TA 1-1205; El Paso, Mrs. Jeanette Harris, 5158 Garry Owen Road; Houston, Mrs. Shirley Jay, 10306 Cliffweod Dr., PA 3-8682; Lubbock, Doris Blaisdell, 2515 24th St.; Midland, Eva Dennis, 4306 Douglas, OX 4-2825; Odessa, Enid Turner, 1706 Glenwood, EM 6-2269; Rio Grande Valley, Mrs. Jack Butler, 601 Houston, McAllen, MU 6-5675; taker” governor simply helps the system flourish. If I might venture a solution to the legislative control of the establishment problem short of a two-party system, I’d say it will take a public awareness of what the legislators are doing. I am convinced that ninety percent of the people, acting free of political ambition and a consciousness of political “image,’ would wind up with a strongly “liberal” record if they were voting on the issues the legislature regularly considers. \(By a liberal record here, I mean a record that would be so labeled by the standards applied to the legislature newspapers each day published an accurate and objective summary of the issues and how the area legislators voted, you’d notice the improvement. If the people were aware of the issues, the legislators would generally vote as most of them already know they should. MEANWHILE, keep up the good fight. The Observer has made many significant contributions to the cause of progress and greatness for Texas. To varying degrees you have made the large dailies report the”.news, and the results have been felt. The only hope for immediate relief that we have is that Governor Connally shall decide on positive solutions to some of the pressing needs and shall resolve to see them through. He has the ability and public support necessary to get the job done if he will. History will then remember him for more than merely having been the other man who was shot on November 22, 1963. San Antonio, Mrs. Mae B. Tuggle, 531 Elmhurst, TA 24154; Tyler, Mrs. Erik Thomsen, 1209 So. Broadway, LY 4-4862. The editor has exclusive control over the editorial policies and contents of the Observer. , None of the other people who are associated with the enterprise shares this responsibility with him. Writers are responsible for their own work, but not for anything they have not themselves written, and in publishing them the editor does not necessarily imply that he agrees with them, because this is a journal of free voices. The Observer publishes articles, essays, and creative work of the shorter forms having to do in various ways with this area. The pay depends; at present it is token. Unsolicited manuscripts must be accompanied by return postage. Unsigned articles are the editor’s. The Observer is published by Texas Observer Co., Ltd., biweekly from Austin, Texas. Entered as second-class matter April 26, 1937, at the Post Office at Austin, Texas, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Second class postage paid at Austin, Texas. Delivered postage prepaid $5.00 a year; two years, $9.50; three years, $13.00. Foreign rates on request. Single copies 25c; prices for ten or more for students, or bulk orders, on request. Editorial and Business Offices: The Texas Observer, 504 West 24th St., Austin 5, Texas. Telephone GR 7-0746. Change of Address: Please give old and new addresses find allow three weeks. THE TEXAS OBSERVER A Journal of Free Voices A Window to the South 58th YEAR ESTABLISHED 1906 Vol. 56, No. 12 “OW June 12, 1964