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AFTER THE BATTLE: Connally on Texas CIVIL DEFENSE TIGHTENS ITS CHINSTRAP State Prepares for War AUSTIN In his first press conference since the general election, Governor elect John Connally Thursday afternoon chatted breezily with reporters, calling many of them by their first name, traded quips, and proved as adept as ever at parrying questions. Relaxed, relieved, and apparently quite tired, Connally prefaced his remarks with an expression of thanks to the press for its campaign coverage. “I think the press has shown a responsibility this year which has been admirable. I’m personally grateful to you,” he said. It was a somewhat far call from Richard Nixon’s judgements on newspapering the day before. Excerpts from the question and answer period: Q. What are your ideas concerning Texas’ state park system? ,Should it be revised? A. “. . . the park system is in such a situation that we’re going to have to make a coordinated, overall move \(to solve its proba report on the system now in progress at Texas Tech, and his decisions would be based on the results of the report. Q. Are the rumors true about planned innovations in the gubernatorial inauguration? A. “I’m not ready to announce my detailed plans . . . . There may he some changes . . . But not so great as for anyone to get worried about it.” When pressed further, however, he said this: “We had given some thoughtand I’m not sure it’ll materializein trying to hold an affair here in Austin that would focus on our problems of industrialization and of tourists, by inviting leading industrialists and labor leaders into the state . . . to point up the resources we have here in Texas. Q. Have you talked to the Vice President since the election? A. “Yes. I talked to the Vice President yesterday for about three minutes. He called me, as did several members of the Texas delegation in Washington.” Q. Have you talked to the President since the election? A. “No, I have not.” Q. Does the election have any implication as far as the Kennedy administration is concerned? A. “No, I don’t think that can he drawn into it. . . .” . Q. What will be the most important issue to face the next session of the legislature? A. After admitting it was difficult to answer, he said it would probably have to do with “providing a stimulus for economic growth in Texas.” Q. Have you formulated a position as regard’s a possible tax increase upon the oil and gas industry? A. “No, I haven’t gone into any tax program. . . . I’m hoping that we can get by without any increased taxes. . . . But I don’t know.” Q. Is it time to start looking for new revenues? A. “Well, I’m not sure. . . . We just passed a sales tax last session. I’d first like to tighten up expenses in administration.” Q. But do you think a tightening up will solve the problem of the need for more revenue? A. He said he was not sure whether more revenues were needed. He pointed out that budget requests had been extraordinarily high because a new governor was coming into office, and the various agencies were asking for a maximum. He did not think the legislature would approve all the requests, however. Q. If more money is needed, where would it come from? A. “I’m not in a position now to say where it would come from. . . . I’ve not advocated any taxes so far. . . . But I’m not against them if they are needed.” Q. How about the request for larger expenditures in higher education? A. He pointed out that it had been suggested that state universities raise their tuition again. That would be a possibility, but he doesn’t want tuition costs to become prohibitive. Q. Do you have any specific ideas for Civil Defense preparation in Texas? A. “I have no specific recommendations.” Q. To what do you attribute the results of the election? A. He wasn’t able to tell. It involved a combination of many things. Q. Did the Cuban crisis affect it? A. “I don’t know. It’s almost impossible to evaluate a thing like that. . . .” Q. Are you going to try to convince Land Commissioner Jerry Saddler of the necessity for making Padre Island a national park? A. “I’m going to try to convince Sadler and the legislature of it.” Connally also stressedas he did throughout the campaignthe need for unity in the Democratic party. “The Democrats in Texas have never run as a party . . . but as individuals,” he said. “This has not been true of Republicans. That was reflected in this election. One of the tasks of the Democratic party is to realize what kind of opposition we have,” and to work together. C.D. Dugger .. . tions for libraries or for legislators. Permit me to make the momentary point that readers Who plan to give the Observer as Christmas presents might want to do so about this time. During the talks that decided the present course of the Observera course which, probably within the next six months, will determine whether it shall cease to exist or shall become a permanent Texas institution, sustained from its earned income Mrs. Randolph’s granddaughter happened to show us a birthday card she was going to give a friend of hers. On the front it said, “Cards Half Off!” Turning inside, one saw that the back of the card was torn in half. The message explained, “But it’s not the price we’re cutting, it’s the card!” I guess some of you will feel that we’re cutting the Observe in half when we should be cutting the price, and I couldn’t deny your point some force, but I hope that over the next few months the Observer will. Mrs. Randolph, the most important private person in Texas liberalism, has made this newspaper possible. But for her, it would not have lasted beyond the first year, nor would a single of the 350 issues thereafter have come into existence, nor would there be an Observer to go on with now. In being willing to go on these last eight years despite discouragements and, rarely, differences, she has not surprised any of us, because that is the kind of indomitable person she is. In being willing to permit us, the members of the Observer community, to try to put the Observer on its own feet, she pays us now the highest compliment of them all. I hope we’are up to it. R.D. AUSTIN As the possibility of a nuclear war took a sharp rise upward with the advent of the Cuban crisis, Texans reacted in a variety of ways, ranging from the comic to the neartragic. Some assumed an attitude of stoic fatalism. Others came near to succumbing to hysteria. And others adamantly refused to believe that a danger existed. In several areas, panic buying occurred. In San Antonio, after it was announced that there would be no more practice testing of the attack warning system, it was accidentally triggered, frightening the populace out of its wits. And predictably, Civil Defense programs throughout the state were either lauded or lambasted by the local citizens, and Civil Defense offices were flooded with worried requests for information. Although the pressand certainly the Civil Defense people quoted thereinwould not admit it, the lobbing of a 20 megaton nuclear warhead on any city in Texas would virtually wipe it off the map, as well as wreak untold damage on the neighboring countryside. In the face of this fact, the city fathers of the larger cities made comforting noises, a few meetings, and took steps which seemed designed primarily to counter a small tornado or a broken gas main rather than the explosion of the equivalent of 20 million tons of TNT above their roof tops. According to Gerard Piel, publisher of the Scientific American, a 20-megaton bomb has a blast diameter of 23 miles, inside of which everything will be destroyed. An area of 3,000 square miles would be immediately ignited by many fires, with the possibility of these fires merging into one single conflagration, or “fire storm,” similar in nature to, but larger than those resulting from the incendiary bombing of Dresden, Hamburg, and Tokyo in World War II, where almost 600,000 people were killed in a single night’s worth of bombing. Recent changes in Civil Defense theory rendered the idea of evacuation from a city impracticable, unless there is from four to seven hours advance warningwhich, of course, is highly unlikely. Therefore, most preparations were designed to be effective while citizens remained within the city. Understandably, the “preparations” which ensued were baffling to the populace. For example, an article in a Houston newspaper on Oct. 27 counselled Houstonians: “Don’t try to run if attack comes . . . Find the best shelter available.” Farther down in the article, it was pointed out that in the city of almost a million persons, there are only nine buildings marked as public fallout shelters, which would accommodate 5,000 people. And it did not mention that if even a 10-megaton bomb were dropped on Houston, all the buildings housing these shelters would be destroyed. The bomb would leave a crater 2,600 feet in diameter and 250 feet deep. Houston Civil Defense Director Floyd Miller and Mayor Lewis Cutrer called for “calm, courageous and intelligent action” on the. part of the citizenry. All families were counselled to “review their emergency plans and to begin acquiring a two-week supply of food and water.” Cutrer added, somewhat cryptically, that fire and police units had “tightened security.” He then flew off to Washington in hopes of bringing back “concrete steps to tighten our defense preparations.” Citizens in Windcrest took a more cavalier attitude to the threat of annihilation. It was revealed during the crisis that their $17,000 steeland concrete-reinforced community fallout shelter was stocked with 17 jugs of water and 32 bottles of beer left over from a Country Club party. The structure would house only 200 of the community’s 1,100 persons, which may account for the presence of what Mayor Reese Henry called the “we’re-all-going-to-beroasted-anyway” attitude. In Dallas, School Supt. W. T. White revealed that music teachers in the public schools would be responsible for a program of relaxation in case children had to remain in school during an attack. City-county Civil Defense Director B. B. Smith cited reports of women cramming grocery carts with seven-pound canned hams, 50-pound sugar sacks, and running their grocery bills up to $100. “We should stop this panic buying and begin to pick sensibly,” he said. “This should be no more a task than buying goods for a picnic.” As if in response to such counsel, the Dallas schools’ lunchroom director, Miss Frances Welch, purchased Vienna sausages, canned tomatoes, canned peaches, tomato, pineapple and grapefruit juices, paper plates, forks and cups and bottled water for all of the 161 schools in the system. While the Dallas Civil Defense urged Dallasites not to try to evacuate, Longview Police Chief Roy Stone, the city’s Civil Defense chairman, said that Longview and Gregg County had been designated as one of the official evacuation areas for residents of Dallas. Stone cited Civil Defense plans for evacuating.72,000 persons from the Dallas area. In Navarro County, the main step taken to supplement the Civil Defense program was the filing of an application for radio units to be placed in the cars of each of the County Commissioners. Also, the courthouse was designated as Civil Defense headquarters. \(Continued from Page Panhandle District 18, a fortress of far-right conservatism, Rogers was leading at latest count by over 10,000 votes. Republican Ross Baker ran a fairly strong race in Houston’s silk-stocking District 22, but Democratic conservative B o b Casey also won by something over 10,000 votes. In a widely-publicized race pitting a liberal Democrat and a conservative Republican, Cong. Homer Thornberry of Austin, Lyndon Johnson’s close associate, trounced Jim Dobbs by almost two-to-one in District 10. Statewide, this was the Republicans’ most ambitious bid for congressional places in a century. GOP candidates tried for 17 of the 23 House seats, compared to a mere five in 1960. The only Texas congressmen without GOP opposition were Olin Teague of Bryan, Joe Kilgore of McAllen, Henry Gonzalez of San Antonio, Omar Burleson of Ansen, and W. R. Poage of Waco. Unofficial returns compiled as this issue goes to press, with Democrats listed first: Wright Patman 24,755, James A. Timberlake 11,992. both Texarkana. Jack Brooks 44.555, Roy James 20,206, both Beaumont. Lindley Beckworth, Gladewater, 27,229; William Steger, Tyler, 25,025. In Corpus Christi, Mayor Ben McDonald said that his city was “years ahead” of many cities in civil defense preparation. He criticized a number of property owners, however, who would not consent to allow their office buildings to be used for public fallout shelters. But he further pointed out that the structures would be opened anyway, by force and without the owners’ consent, in an emergency. Activities in San Antonio consisted primarily of a ceremony in which the city’s first downtown fallout shelter was “marked.” According to the San Antonio Express, “high-ranking state and local civil defense officials” pgrticipated in the ceremony. Bruce Sasse, general manager of the City Water Board, speculated that an attack on San Antonio probably would not seriously affect the city’s water supply. And the City Police Service Board had plans, in the event of a warning \(which would very possibly be of less than than 1,6,0 workers outside the city to await recall to duty when the attack was over. Lt. Gen. Uolevi Poppius, chairman of the Civil Defense Council of Finland, was interviewed in Houston at the height of the crisis, and pointed out that one of the most important things in defense against nuclear attack is to keep cheerful. He also opined that small shelters in homes and offices were better than public fallout shelters. This was in contradiction to the opinion of AustinTravis County Civil Defense Director W. A. Kengla, who feels that public shelters are more desirable. Kengla stated that there were over 300,000 spaces in Travis County with some degree of fallout protection. The great majority of themincluding those at the University of Texasare located in the area of total destruction if a 10 or 20 megaton bomb lands in the vicinity of the Bergstrom SAC base. C.D. Ray Roberts, McKinney, 19,754; Conner Harrington, Plano,