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The Shape of Contest AUSTIN As a practical matter, what form will the conflict over the Democrats’ presidential nomination and state party control take during and after the May 7th precinct conventions? It appears to the Observer that no one is very sure of the answers and that the party conventions this and next month will be open and fluid. The six resolutions the liberal Democrats of Texas Clubs are sponsoring for the precinct conventions include at least three on which some possible mis-step by Senator Johnson’s forces or Governor Daniel’s could precipitate a bolting delegation to Los Angeles. These are the proposed party loyalty requirement for party officers and national convention delegates; a second term for national committee woman Mrs. R. D. Randolph; and the honoring of congressional district caucus nominations for party officers and the national delegation. At the same time, forces who do not favor Johnson for the nomination, in precincts which they control, may be expected to take positions of “affirmative opposition,” that is, to advocate, not only policy resolutions stressing party loyalty and favoring liberal party officers, but also to advocate such candidates as Adlai Stevenson or John Kennedy or to send uninstructed delegations to the state convention. Johnson’s forces are devoting their energiesin coalition with the’ supporters of Gov. Price Danielto pass, at the precinct level, a single resolution designating Johnson chairman of the Texas delegation, pledging “unceasing efforts to secure his nomination and election,” and calling for a unit rule on the delegation. Although the Johnson position opposes taking stands for or against other resolutions at the precinct level, issues may be forced to a roll call vote on the state convention floor in June on which Johnson’s delegations will have to be counted. Freedom in Action delegationssuch as may come from Dallas and other citiesare cool toward Johnson, but also toward the D.O.T.C., and are therefore in a position to bargain with either group against the other. Only one thing is clear: that to take part in the pKecinct conventions of the DemOcrats, voters must have voted in the Democratic primaries of the same day. This will leave the Democratic precincts to the Democratic voters, in accordance with the 1959 party registration law. J. Ed Connally, chairman of the state Democratic executive committee, said that many inquiries had been received by S.D.E.C. from people who wanted to vote Democratic and attend Republican precinct con.ventions, but, he said, this cannot be done any more under the new state law. The one great rule of composition is to speak the truth. THOREAU We will serve no group or party but will hew hard to the truth as we find it and the right as we see it. The Texas Observer An Independent-Liberal Weekly Newspaper Vol. 52 TEXAS, MAY 6, 1960 10c per copy No. 5 Saturday’s Decisions TYLER International price control for oil and a public relations program aimed at the great U.S. urban population centers were proposed in principal speeches here this week during the convention of the Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners’ Assn. Abdulla H. Tariki, director general of petroleum affairs in ‘Saudi Arabia and a former University of Texas student, proposed. the “international oil proration” plan to prevent waste, conserve oil, and accomplish “the stabilization of the markets, or, if you will, the control of prices.” Texas and U.S. oil proration has the effect of controlling oil prices, but neither the laws establishing these production controls nor the Texas Railroad Commission which administers them in this state acknowledge that they have price in view. Tariki said his world-wide production control plan would be intended to prevent “unnatural and unnecessary” price drops due to overproduction, not to accomplish “monopolistic control of the market.” He would have natioris. divide up the market and produce their allotted portion of the oil, thus “establishing a means of avoiding damaging competition.” In another key speech, Eugene Miller, associate editor of Business Week Magazine, gave the oilmen some blunt “images” of them selves and told them. what he thinks they are doing wrong in PR. Though the industry has spent $100 million improving its PR the last ten years, he said, the public still thinks it is “composed of cartels and monopolies,” saturated with “price fixing and collusion.” “The public feels that oilmen are on the receiving end of one of the greatest swindles ever perpetrated on the publicnamely the depletion allowance,” Miller continued. “That the oil industry will use every trick in the booklying, cheating, bribing, and all sorts of unethical practicesto win their way. “That the independents particularly are a stupid bunch of ultraconservative, semi -illiterat e, boastful, swaggering clouts who spend all their time either riding in one of their fleet of Cadillacs or swigging bourbon at a bar. “And I’d say these results aren’t too good considering the $100 million expenditure.” The magazine executive said the depletion allowance is in jeopardy from one year to the next, “and whenever the team of Senator Lyndon Johnson and Sam Rayburn no longer is around, it may be in more serious trouble.” The Justice Dept. uses oil as its “chief whipping boy,” and the current investigation of the Federal Power Commission will make the oil industry “wish the hearings were AUSTIN Politicians’ nervo u s n es s abou’t the Saturday primary is caused principally by the possibility of a light turn-out. When the legislature, to accommodate Senator Johnson’s timing, moved the primary from summer to spring, they ran cross-grain against the people’s voting habits, and there is speculation that many of the state’s 2,700,000 qualified voters may not quite believe there is an election Saturday. Compounding this new factor is another: the new state party registration law which will tend to keep Republicans out of the Democratic primary by requiring that the word “Democrat” be stamped on the poll taxes of voters in the Saturday primary and making such voting pre-requisite to participation in the Democratic precinct conventions also to be held Saturday. Since the general effect of a light turn-out is to reduce the incumbents’ advantage and to increase the proportional importance of hard blocs of voters, Gov. Price Daniel is urging a large turn-out, and Lt. Gov. Ben Ramsey has a similar stake in the size of the vote. Ramsey has another worry: the “x” factor in the name of his challenger, Don Yarborough, the young Houston attorney. Atty. Gen. Will Wilson and Speaker Waggoner Carr, giving up the amenities, have been landing haymakers on each other for a couple of weeks. Whether Carr has gained enough on Wilson to cause a runoff \(the third man being never held,” Miller said. He explained the industry’s PR problem as one of too many spokesmen, and therefore “no voice”; too much effort concentrated in major producing areas like Texas and Oklahoma, so that the industry “has been largely talking toitself”; and failure to communicate with those who disagree with the industry and are written off as “radicals, left-wingers, or ultra-liberals.” “There has been a lack of .con centration in areas like New York, *. Detroit, Chicago, where there are plenty of important newspapers, magazines, radio and TV stations, book publishers, and opinion molders. . . . Labor union leaders, for example, have been ignored generally.” Lloyd Unsell, director of information, Independent Petroleum Assn. of America, argued, on the other hand, that the industry has “exceptionally good public relations.” There are 52 special oil writers on “oil country newspapers,” plus wire service writers, special correspondents, and 25 business editors who devote much of their time to oil, he said. He figured that the salaries, ink, type, and paper devoted to covering the oil industry in U.S. dailies totals about $770,000 a year. “I don’t believe you can show me another industry that is more favored with favorable efforts on the part of Bob Looney tabulations can say. One factor which should tend to increase the total vote: the many intense local races. In all, nine state senators have been challenged, and six of the Texas congressmen; there are 105 contested races for seats in the House of Representatives. With Jack Cox campaigning against Daniel on a platform of a general sales tax, interest in the legislative campaign may be higher than usual. The increase in business financing and business candidates noted in the Observer over a period of weeks has been further ‘specified by Brian Spinks in the Houston Post, who found that at least 12 of the conservative candidates for precinct chairman in Houston can be classified as management employees of Sheffield Steel, another nine, of Humble Oil & Refining Co.. and others, of Gulf Oil Company, Texas Company, A. 0. Smith Corp., Tennessee Gas, Diamond Alkali, Brown & Root, Lubrizol Corp., and Sohio Petroleum Corp. This increase in business interest in Houston politics is expected to result in the highest business participation there since 1952, Spinks said. Three of the congressional races have caused active local interest: Rev. Bill Crook’s challenge of Rep. John Dowdy, Athens; Dudley Dougherty’s challenge to Rep. John Young, Corpus Christi; and Sen. Bill Moore’s challenge to Rep. Olin Teague, College Station. Close outcomes are expected in these Texas Senate races: Sen. William Fly, Victoria, vs. Bill Patnian, Ganado; Sen. Henry Gonzalez, San Antonio, vs. three opponents; Sen. Bill Wood, Tyler, vs. Galloway Calhoun, Jr., Tyler. Reps. Jim Bates, Edinburg, opposing Sen. Hub e rt Hudson, Zbranek, Liberty, opposing Sen. Neveille Colson, Navasota, were originally given chances to win: \(With this article the Observer concludes a special series by our Washington correspondents, Jake and Anne Lewis, on Texas incumbent congressmen facing challenges at the polls. For the Observer’s editorial judgment on this phase of the elections, please WASHINGTON This spring a veteran politician and a college professor are seeking to represent the 13-county 15th congressional district. So far, most of the politicking has come from the professor. The politician, for the most part, has viewed the campaign from his Washington office. The race is only the third contested primary that Joe Kilgore has faced since he jumped into politics back in 1946. It is the first venture into politics for his opponent, Dr. John E. Westburg, a political science professor at Pan American College at Edinburg. Westburg, a political newcomer, not much has been heard from their contests. Daniel and Cox Gov. Daniel and Jack Cox were giving no quarter as the campaign between them ended. Cox continued to play to liberals by blasting Daniel for his refusal to take two liberal choices for the state Democratic executive committee in 1958. He would always seat caucus nominees, Cox promised Democrats. Daniel declared that “Every dollar of the deficit can be traced to the drop in oil allowables.” Eight legislators, led by Scott McDonald of Fort Worth, charged that Daniel did the legislature an injustice when he said lobbyists caused a majority of the legislators to fail to enact a program in 1959. Two legislators, Reps. Joe Cannon, Mexia, and George Hinson, Mineola, charged that Cox was a lobbyist in 1959, and registered as such. Cannon and Hinson charged that “other lobbyists for the gas pipelines,” aided by ex-Gov. Shivers, “who is now in the gas pipeline business,” want to repeal Daniel’s gas pipeline tax and “put all the taxes on the salaried people of this state through a general sales tax.” Cox, having fielded Danel’s charge that his intimation Daniel wants an income tax is “a wild falsehood” by saying he was only guessing at Daniel’s “.secret tax plans,” called the charge he was a lobbyist “a mis-statement of fact.” Like more than 5,000 other citizens under the Daniel lobbyist control he had’ had to register as a lobbyist in order to testify, he said. On state TV, Cox repeated earlier statements that Daniel has taken the Fifth Amendment on his own “secret” tax program; he is driving business away from Texas; the AFL-CIO has endorsed both Daniel and a state income has been campaigning on a platform favoring federal aid to education, a $1.25 minimum wage “for retail store clerks and farm workers as well as for others,” and the overthrow of “Border political bosses.” \(His speech for a minimum wage was published in A 41-year-old newcomer to the Valley, W est berg holds five earned degree from the Universities of South Carolina and Southern California in foreign service and political science. He is now an associate professor ‘of history and government in Pan American College in Edinburg. Kilgore grants he voted for Eisenhower in 1952, but points out that he refused to allow his name to be cross filed on the Republican ticket in Hidalgo County. He said that it is less likely that there will be any such switch to a Republican candidate this year, “but it will depend on the nominees.” Kilgore, like the other mem bers of the Texas delegation in \(Continued on Page TIPRO HEARS PRICE PLAN OPPOSED BY A PROF Kilgore Studied